Types of CRM
CRM can be divided not only into different areas, but also into four components, each used by each department as required. These components are:
The analytical component of CRM is where customer data is collected and evaluated. CRM software and the options it makes possible play a central role in this function. What data can your software collect? In what ways can this data then be analyzed and evaluated? These questions must be taken into consideration when selecting CRM software because effective customer relationship management cannot be achieved without reliable data evaluation. Methods borrowed from the field of business intelligence are used for this purpose, especially data mining – i.e. the systematic statistical evaluation of large volumes of data. This helps to identify trends and can verify whether certain measures have been successful while also reporting on whether there were any (perhaps unexpected) side effects.
The task of operational CRM is to translate the findings of analytical CRM into concrete measures. Among other things, this includes sorting customers into different categories. This helps to evaluate the relative importance of each customer to the company, the market sector in which the customer is active, whether the customer could be interested in any other aspects of the market, whether the order potential in the identified core sector has yet been exhausted, and more. In addition, operational CRM also gathers further data which, in conjunction with the software, helps to give a more precise picture of each customer.
Communicational CRM manages various communication channels so that a coordinated contact with the customer can be maintained. If, for example, a customer has been contacted via newsletter, this can then be followed up with a personal call. This coordination of communication methods means the company can build upon the groundwork performed by each 8
successive measure. In the absence of such coordination, some of these measures would presumably be in vain, or perhaps even counterproductive if the customer then feels harassed or poorly looked-after.
Just like communicational CRM, collaborative CRM serves to coordinate. However, this task is not about coordinating external actions but concerns coordination across the company. Thanks to CRM software, all departments involved in customer relationship management work with the same data, but this does not necessarily mean their efforts are coordinated. Collaborative CRM allows a company-wide approach, which determines clear goals and responsibilities.